Under the principle of the merit system, the appointment and dismissal of national public employees are carried out based on the results of recruitment examinations, personnel evaluation or other demonstrated abilities. The initial appointment of employees is made through an open, fair and competitive examination or a selection process based on the fair assessment of abilities and appointment procedures.
In addition, appointments including promotion and transfer after initial appointment are to be fairly implemented based on the principles of the merit system. The NPA offers instructions to the Cabinet Office and each ministry in carrying out appointments that are consistent with the purpose of the system.
On the other hand, from the perspective of maintaining efficiency and transparency in the public service employment, public employees are not to be demoted, placed on administrative leave or dismissed against their will, unless there are grounds to do so provided for by law or NPA rules.